What are GM crops and how is it done?

By | July 11, 2022

What is genetic modification (GM) of crops and how is information technology washed?

GM is a technology that involves inserting Deoxyribonucleic acid into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into constitute cells. Commonly, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new Deoxyribonucleic acid.

The characteristics of all living organisms are determined by their genetic makeup and its interaction with the environment. The genetic makeup of an organism is its genome, which in all plants and animals is made of DNA. The genome contains genes, regions of Dna that ordinarily comport the instructions for making proteins. It is these proteins that give the plant its characteristics. For example, the colour of flowers is adamant by genes that behave the instructions for making proteins involved in producing the pigments that color petals.

Genetic modification of plants involves calculation a specific stretch of Deoxyribonucleic acid into the plant’southward genome, giving it new or dissimilar characteristics. This could include changing the way the plant grows, or making it resistant to a item disease. The new Deoxyribonucleic acid becomes part of the GM institute’s genome which the seeds produced by these plants volition comprise.

The start stage in making a GM plant requires transfer of Dna into a plant cell. 1 of the methods used to transfer DNA is to coat the surface of minor metal particles with the relevant Deoxyribonucleic acid fragment, and bombard the particles into the institute cells. Another method is to use a bacterium or virus. In that location are many viruses and leaner that transfer their Deoxyribonucleic acid into a host cell as a normal part of their life cycle. For GM plants, the bacterium most frequently used is called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The gene of interest is transferred into the bacterium and the bacterial cells then transfer the new DNA to the genome of the plant cells. The institute cells that have successfully taken up the DNA are then grown to create a new plant. This is possible because private plant cells accept an impressive capacity to generate entire plants. On rare occasions, the process of DNA transfer can happen without deliberate human intervention. For example the sweet potato contains DNA sequences that were transferred thousands of years ago, from Agrobacterium bacteria into the sweet murphy genome.

Popular:   Building Products For The Enterprise Pdf

There are other ways to change the genomes of crops, some of which are long established, such as mutational convenance, and others of which are new, such as genome editing, just in this Q&A we are focusing on GM as it is currently usually divers for regulatory purposes in Europe.

See related questions

  • How common are genes in nutrient?
  • How does GM differ from conventional plant breeding?
  • Who is paying for GM crop evolution and who owns the technology?

Page last updated: May 2016

Download all questions and answers (PDF)

Was this page useful?

Thank you for your feedback

Cheers for your feedback. Please aid us improve this page by taking our short survey.

Source: https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/gm-plants/what-is-gm-and-how-is-it-done/